The Internet Protocol (IP) now comes in two versions: IPv4 and IPv6. Online networking and data exchange is made possible by both types, but the two versions recognize devices differently and have different functionality. Which Characteristic Describes an ipv6 Enhancement Over ipv4? Which one is therefore superior, quicker, and more secure?
In this article, IPv4 and IPv6, the two IP versions currently in use for Internet traffic routing, are compared side by side. Continue reading to discover the key differences between the two protocols and why the Internet must convert to IPv6 immediately.
What is IPv4?
Since the 1980s, the Internet Protocol (IPv4) has been the standard method of Internet communication. IPv4 is the first major version of the protocol. 94% of all online traffic was “carried” by this protocol in 2021.
Devices are given 32-bit IP addresses using IPv4. Each address consists of four groups of numbers (known as octets), each eight bits long. For example:
Every address between 0.0.0.0 and 255.255.255.255 is included in the IPv4 model because each octet’s value can range from 0 to 255. Every IPv4 address has two components:
- The device’s network ID is represented by the device’s first three octets.
- The device’s unique host ID on that network is represented by the fourth octet.
For instance, 192.168.1 is the network ID, and (1) is the host ID in the IP 192.168.1.1 for your home network. The router typically receives the.1 value by default.
4,294,967,296 distinct addresses can be created and used with IPv4 (more formally written as 232). Over 4 billion addresses were accessible in the 1980s and 1990s, which appeared to be enough to meet the demand for the online world. But it soon became apparent that there would be a scarcity.
There are more than 7.75 billion people on the planet today, and the majority of us own two or more smart gadgets. IT professionals must “trick” devices into reusing the same IP addresses because there are just over four billion available addresses.
Network Address Translation is the most used method for reusing IPv4 addresses (NAT). With the help of NAT, you may represent a collection of devices using a single IP address, saving bandwidth and delaying the exhaustion of available IP addresses.
Features of IPv4
These are IPv4’s primary characteristics:
- 32-bit IP addresses are generated.
- The format of addresses, which consists of four 1-byte decimal numbers separated by dots, is simple enough for a human to read and even memories.
- Connectivity-free protocol
- Little memory is needed to store address information in the network.
- Supported by almost all Internet-connected devices and websites.
- Provides conferences and video libraries.
- Allows for the easy development of a virtual communication layer across a variety of devices.
What is IPv6?
The most recent Internet Protocol version, IPv6, is the replacement for IPv4. The primary problem with the prior IP, the requirement for more IP addresses, is addressed by IPv6. IPng is a different term for IPv6 (Internet Protocol next generation).
IPv6 employs 128-bit hexadecimal IP addresses, in contrast to IPv4. This model supports 2128 different addresses (over 340 undecillion, which is 340 with 36 zeros).
IPv6 addresses are alphanumeric and comprise eight 16-bit blocks, or sextets or quartets, instead of the four symbols used in IPv4 addresses. Additionally, IPv6 utilizes colons rather than periods for formatting, as shown in the following example:
The model doesn’t include leading zeros (as in IPv4), thus occasionally you’ll see IP addresses with double colons (::) that represent any amount of 0 bits (such as 1201:2db7::fa00:0040:6669, in which the third, fourth, and fifth extent are 0000).
Although IPv6 is more environmentally friendly than IPv4, IPv4 still dominates the Internet. It takes a lot of time and money to upgrade all the switches, servers, and routers that have been using IPv4 for decades. Compatibility is another issue, which is why methods for converting from IPv4 to IPv6 like:
- A device can execute both protocol types concurrently thanks to dual stacking.
- IPv6 tunnels permit private networks to speak to one another even though their IP versions are different.
IP conversions produce faults, even when they are functional, that can result in network security problems, cyberattacks, and data leaks. A network should ideally only use IPv6, which is set to become standard during the next few years.
Features of IPv6
These are IPv6’s primary characteristics:
- a hexadecimal address system of 128 bits.
- configurations that are both stateful and stateless.
- capability for automatic configuration.
- support for flow labeling, often known as quality of service (QoS).
- unlike IPv4, with better multicast routing and a simplified header format.
- There is no need for NAT, one of the most widely used solutions for preserving IPv4 addresses, because there is an end-to-end connection at the IP layer.
- With integrated support for privacy, encryption, and Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), authentication is possible.
Why Is IPv6 More Superior to IPv4?
Which Characteristic Describes an ipv6 Enhancement Over ipv4? The most recent IP version, IPv6, is more sophisticated, secure, and rapid than IPv4. The following are the primary benefits IPv6 has over its forerunner:
- IP addresses are sufficient for the foreseeable future.
- Streamlined router operations (mainly due to the encoding of IPv6 addresses that uses a hierarchy similar to CIDR).
- Automation of configuration that handles things like assigning IP addresses and device identifiers.
- Better mobile network compatibility
- Smaller routing tables result in more effective routing.
- Speed gains of up to 15% are possible, mostly as a result of bigger payloads and allowing each device to have a public IP address (instead of hiding behind a NAT router).
- End-to-end encryption, identity checking, and data integrity capabilities are built-in.
Despite these advantages, less than 1% of networks in operation today utilize IPv6. The standard IP since the inception of the Internet is IPv4, which is used by everyone else. Legacy systems, especially those on which we have relied for many years, are difficult (and expensive) to remove.
On top of transition-related challenges, there are additional issues. While many operating systems and network infrastructures struggle with IPv6 routing, certain VPNs do not support the newest IP.
Additionally, larger packet headers may slow down some use cases that would benefit from IPv4 more.
The vastly increased number of IP addresses that are available is the primary factor that makes IPv6 superior to its predecessor. For most use situations, the speed difference is negligible, and tech-savvy administrators are able to add the majority of IPv6-native capabilities to IPv4.
Which Characteristic Describes an ipv6 Enhancement Over ipv4? Nobody can produce new IPv4 addresses, which the US ran out of in 2015. This is the fundamental reason IPv6 will eventually replace IPv4 in use.